byCHEM Study, College of Chemistry and Lawrence Hall of Science, U.C. Berkeley
Vanadium is studied as a typical transition element. The different oxidation states of vanadium and the corresponding colors are observed and then identified by means of a quantitative titration of vanadium (II) solution with cerium (IV) solution. The oxidation states and the observed colors are correlated with the electronic structures using an orbital board. The reaction with hydroxide ion and the formation of complex ions containing vanadium in different oxidation states are demonstrated.... Topics: CHEM Study, chemical education, science education, Sputnik-era curriculum, vanadium, transition...